Grants are funds that do not need to be paid back and are typically provided by a higher level of government to a lower level (e.g., from the federal government to states or localities; from states to local
governments) or by a philanthropic entity. The federal government, the State of
California, and each region’s metropolitan planning organization (MPO) provide
a wide range of grants and formula funding programs that are relevant for
TOD/infill infrastructure needs, including for transportation, community and
economic development, clean air and water, brownfield cleanup, parks and open
space, and local and regional planning. Because grant programs are typically
competitive, grant funds are an unpredictable funding source.