GLOSSARY OF TERMS
This section provides definitions for terms found in the case studies.​ 

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

A short-term (e.g., five-year) plan that catalogues planned and ongoing physical development projects within a city. A CIP usually includes a list of projects ranked in order of priority, as well as the costs, funding sources, and schedule for each project. Local governments typically adopt CIPs on an annual or biannual basis.


COVENANT, CONDITIONS & RESTRICTIONS

A set of rules that limits what a property owner or tenant can do with their property and contain the ground rules for operating a development’s homeowner association (HOA). CC&Rs are established by a project’s developer through a Declaration of Covenants, Conditions & Restrictions.


GROUND LEASE

An agreement whereby a tenant is allowed to develop and use a piece of property during a defined lease period (sometimes for as long as 99 years), after which ownership of the improvements made by the tenant usually reverts to the property owner. In the context of joint development, a public agency is usually the property owner and a private developer is the tenant.


HOMEOWNER ASSOCIATIONS

A corporation charged with operating and maintaining common space within a development and preserving and enhancing the value of the development. Developments governed by HOAs are known as common interest developments (CIDs) under California law. HOA membership is automatic for all homeowners in a CID. HOAs are governed by a declaration of covenants, conditions, and restrictions (CC&Rs), which establishes the association’s responsibilities, procedures for calculating and collecting assessments from homeowners, procedures for electing board members, and other ground rules for the HOA’s operations.


INFILL

Closely related to the principle of smart growth, infill development involves building and developing in vacant areas or on obsolete or underutilized sites in city centers or urban settings.


METROPOLITAN PLANNING ORGANIZATION

A regional transportation policy-making organization. In California, MPOs conduct long-term transportation planning efforts and allocate state and federal transportation dollars to local projects.


OWNER PARTICIPATION AGREEMENT

An agreement between a redevelopment agency and a land owner and/or developer whereby the owner/developer agrees to develop the property in accordance with certain provisions of the redevelopment plan. The OPA commits the property owner to produce a specific project within a defined time frame under mutually agreed-upon terms, usually in exchange for a subsidy or other type of assistance from the redevelopment agency.


SMART GROWTH

Growth that benefits the economy, the community, the environment, and public health.


TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT

A TOD is new development or significant reinvestment in existing properties within ¼ to ½ mile of a transit station that generates ridership for the transit system, lowers people’s cost to live and work, and increases opportunities and choices for accessing housing and jobs.​


TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION

A non-profit organization that provides transportation services, usually within a commercial area like a downtown or office park. TMAs are typically governed by members of the local business community with support from local government. Some of the services that TMAs may provide include parking management, programs for facilitating and incentivizing carpooling, transit passes, pedestrian and bicycle planning, and shuttle service (for example, the Emery-Go-Round shuttle in Emeryville, CA).

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