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The City and County of San Francisco began exploring the use of IFDs in 2008 in a search for infrastructure financing tools to use outside of redevelopment project areas. The San Francisco IFD and Rincon Hill Pilot IFD grew out of the need for new infrastructure to support residential and commercial development in the four Eastern Neighborhoods planning areas. Traditional redevelopment tax-increment financing was not a viable option because most of the areas fell outside of redevelopment areas. Over the following years, San Francisco developed a policy to guide the use of IFDs and established a pilot IFD in the Rincon Hill neighborhood.
This case study discusses San Francisco’s experience with IFDs to date, and the lessons that other jurisdictions can learn from that experience.


Funding and Financing Tools and Strategies
The Emery-Go-Round is a free local circulator system that annually shuttles 1.3 million commuters and residents between Emeryville and the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) MacArthur Station. The shuttle service represents the culmination of a partnership formed between the City of Emeryville and a constituency of local corporations that began in 1996. The shuttle service provides an example of the efficacy of coordinated private sector investment in providing reliable, nonautomotive commute options. It is funded by a Property-Based Business Improvement District (PBID), whereby business owners have elected to pay a small assessment on commercial square footage to support the shuttle’s operation. Although the project was initially proposed and planned by city staff, the city’s role in funding and operation was phased out in the first 3 years of operation, and the shuttle has operated successfully for 15 years with very little assistance from the local redevelopment agency.
Funding and Financing Tools and Strategies
White Flint is in North Bethesda, an urbanized area in Montgomery County, Maryland. The White Flint Sector Plan covers 430 acres within a 4-mile radius of the White Flint Metrorail station, part of the rapid transit system operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. To support significant new residential and commercial development, the sector plan identified $313.4 million worth of infrastructure and public facility needs.
This case study focuses on the provisions in the plan related to implementation and financing of the proposed infrastructure and public facility projects, and describes how implementation has actually progressed since the plan was adopted in early 2010. The White Flint Sector Plan is an excellent example of a comprehensive plan for transit-oriented development with a strong focus on implementation. Montgomery County’s experience also illustrates the challenges that can be involved in financing complex infrastructure and public facility projects, even with a well-thought-out plan.
Funding and Financing Tools and Strategies
University Circle is a square-mile district about four miles east of downtown Cleveland that is home to approximately 40 education, health, arts, and social services institutions. Since the 1950s, the University Circle institutions have worked together to plan the development of the Circle, acquire land, and provide services such as landscaping, policing, and marketing through an organization called University Circle, Inc. In 2005, the Cleveland Foundation initiated a new effort to bring the district’s institutions together to address critical infrastructure needs and revitalize the surrounding “greater” University Circle neighborhoods. Through these two efforts, the institutions in University Circle have contributed to infrastructure development in a number of ways – including providing up-front money to pay for design and planning, supporting grant applications, and even taking the lead in raising funding and constructing streetscape and other improvements. This case study reviews the range of ways that anchor institutions have contributed to infrastructure and transit-oriented development in the Circle.
Funding and Financing Tools and Strategies
Old Pasadena’s parking management strategy is one of the most frequently cited examples of a multipronged approach to alleviating parking issues and funding improvements in the Southern California region. Innovative parking strategies have assisted the revival of Old Pasadena as a commercial destination, and the area is now one of the most vibrant downtowns in the region. In the early 1990s, the city devised two creative parking policies to fund downtown improvements and mitigate future parking congestion. First, the city reinstalled parking meters in the downtown and used meter revenues to finance local improvements, establishing a parking management district with a local citizen advisory board that set meter rates and enacted parking policy in the district. The net revenues of the program financed a number of streetscape improvements that improved the commercial viability of Old Pasadena. Secondly, a parking credit program for commercial property owners satisfied off-street parking requirements in three downtown public parking structures. In 2004, the Old Pasadena Management District assumed control of the administration and management of the structures. Proactive management strategies have helped boost garage occupancy rates, an added benefit to the local merchant community.
Parking Management Strategies
The City of Aurora in the Denver metro area recently completed a “Strategic Parking Plan and Program Study” that is an innovative parking management strategy for the planned I-225 light rail corridor, including a corridor-based strategy for financing structured parking. The study envisions implementing fees for parking as well as other parking management tools along the entire light rail corridor, including the transit station parking lots and surrounding residential and commercial parking areas. By managing the parking supply and implementing fees across a broad geographic area, the measures described in the study could create a market for priced parking (i.e., eliminate the option for free parking on the street) and raise revenue to pay for new parking structures at targeted stations. The Aurora study demonstrates the range of parking, management, pricing, and other revenue generating tools that could be included, as well as the challenges involved in implementing this type of corridor-level parking strategy.
Parking Management Strategies
The West Dublin Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) station opened in February 2011 after a nearly 15-year effort to fund and construct the station. The station is in suburban Alameda County, on the border between the towns of Dublin and Pleasanton. The West Dublin station was completed as an “infill” station between the Dublin/Pleasanton and Castro Valley stations, a ten-mile stretch of the BART line with no stops. The construction of the West Dublin Station provides a unique example of using joint development as a value capture strategy to fund the construction of a rail station and the provision of TOD infrastructure.
Funding and Financing Tools and Strategies
The Burbank Collection is an $80 million project in downtown Burbank that includes 40,000 square feet of urban retail space, 118 condominiums, and a 723-space parking garage that provides parking for residents, retail customers, and the public. Champion Real Estate Companies, the developer built the garage as part of the larger project. The city then purchased the public component of the garage from the developer using the proceeds of a bond issuance backed by a combination of tax-increment financing and a community facilities district special tax.
This case study discusses how the publicly owned component of the garage was financed and how it is managed today, including the challenges involved in managing this type of shared-ownership, shared-access parking
Funding and Financing Tools and Strategies
Over the past five years Redwood City has taken an aggressive approach to satisfying its downtown parking demand. To manage the area’s existing parking options – including on-street meters and multiple public and private garages – Redwood City developed a parking management district: the Downtown Meter Zone Program. The program altered rates and time limits for metered parking in downtown to stimulate more patron turnover, generate more revenue from the existing supply, and ensure efficient use of parking spaces. This program coincided with the development of a major retail/cinema center in the area for which the Redwood City Redevelopment Agency financed a 590-space underground garage. Downtown Redwood City demonstrates that a coordinated policy that uses both on-street and garage spaces and that builds off existing assets can be an effective strategy.
Parking Management Strategies
For 15 years San Diego’s Centre City has pursued an innovative, multitiered parking management district strategy that uses local resources to generate revenue and alleviate parking demand. Parking management in Centre City has benefitted from the city’s long-term strategy for allocating parking revenues. Centre City has used a two-pronged approach to alleviating demand issues; first, smart meters were implemented to increase on-street parking occupancy and two parking structures were built in areas with chronic parking shortages. Meter revenues financed the construction of the structures.
Parking Management Strategies